10 Professional Prototyping Tips from Shuya Gong of Ideo

Search YouTube for ‘Ideo shopping cart,’ and you will find a vintage 1990s ABC Nightline clip with over 1.3 million views. It doesn’t feature celebrities or world leaders, just a group of designers from the product development firm Ideo. The stars of the video are an eclectic mix of innovators, including an engineer, a linguist, a marketing expert, a psychologist, and individuals with MBA and biology degrees. They are working on a one-week assignment to imagine then prototype a next-generation shopping cart. The resulting design – complete with a scanner attached to the cart that would allow you to scan and bag your groceries while you shop – certainly looked odd in 1999. However, if you go into some grocery stores today, you are actually able to do just that, scanning your items using an app on your smartphone. 

@ohmygong from @Ideo CoLab is sharing #prototyping tips so all #entrepreneurs and #business owners can learn this vital skill!

With wild ideas bursting from a multidisciplinary team, the video shows an innovation process that was quite radical in the ‘90s but has since become normal and a proven way of success adopted by some of the brightest companies in the world, including Google and Apple. These days, Ideo is still innovating, although they have moved from product design to a full platform that includes an array of services. 

Shuya Gong works within the Ideo CoLab, a collaborative innovation platform focusing on human-centered design. From her experience creating prototypes for a variety of companies, she offers these professional prototyping tips and insights. 

10 Professional Prototyping Tips

1. You can prototype anything.

For those who think prototyping isn’t their ‘thing,’ Shuya stresses that prototyping is important for all entrepreneurs and business owners. “A prototype is a question made tangible,” says Shuya. “You can prototype anything. This includes experiences, products, stories, business plans, and proof of concepts.”

2. Get a great team and trust the process.

As mentioned before, the best innovation happens when you gather a multidisciplinary team where everyone can tackle the project from different angles to create truly unique concepts and prototypes. Of course, Shuya cautions that working on a team is hard; expect to go through a rollercoaster of divergence and convergence of ideas. Embrace the process and know that you’re going to come through at the end. 

3. Build your (and your team’s) creative confidence.

One of the top professional prototyping tips is to build creative confidence. This is the baseline to making creativity happen, and for allowing innovation to happen inside your business. To encourage more innovation, entrepreneurs and business owners should create a culture where wild ideas are embraced, and everyone is invited into the innovation process no matter their rank or background. “A designer is someone who makes stuff with the intent of usability,” remarks Shayo. Everyone within the organization can contribute to the design and prototyping process.

4. Design is a three-step process.

Design is a three-step process

“Think of design as a process. It goes from inspiration to ideation to implementation,” explains Shuya.

  • Inspiration: Get inspired about the problem you are trying to solve. Understand how to look at people, how to understand what they’re thinking, and how to have empathy. This part of the process involves observing as well as interviewing users.
  • Ideation: “Ideation is the part that gets really messy,” says Shuya. After you have gathered information from your target market, it’s time to put everything together and try to understand it. Based on their feedback, you start generating a lot of ideas—some even wild and bizarre—in the ideation step.
  • Implementation: Implementation is about taking the final ideas from the ideation step and executing them in order to create the prototype and bring your product or service to the market. For this most difficult step, Shuya recommends that you have a good COO.

5. Remember for whom you are designing.

Your client or customer is the most important part of the prototyping process because your aim is to make something desirable for them. To understand why you’re making something, gain insight into the pain points because you can’t fix something if you don’t know why or what is broken. Shuya recommends doing ‘design research’ which is different from ‘marketing research’ in that it is open-ended, exploratory, and aimed at discovering the main questions and problems (to which you will develop answers and solutions).

6. Engage in venture design.

Venture design is different from normal design because venture design is about creating the unseeable, creating something that when you put it out in the world, people look at it and say “Whoa! I need this right now! I can’t believe this doesn’t exist already!” As Shuya explains it, if you consider the world and everything that is real on one plane, the concrete plane, then everything above it is abstract. You want to be on that upper, abstract plane when you are venture designing. The goal is to find something that doesn’t exist yet but will make people’s lives much easier.

7. Gather inspiration from everywhere.

It is old school wisdom to carry a pen and paper around with you all the time to log your ideas. Shuya has a tip for the modern era—just get an Instagram account and take pictures of all the interesting things that you encounter so you can remember them. When you get stuck in a spot and don’t understand how to solve a problem, go back through your Instagram photos. “Probably you’ve taken a picture of something inspiring at some point in time that will trigger some great idea,” says Shuya.

8. Less talking, more doing.

Less talking, more doing image

When you get to the ideation stage, be very urgent and action-oriented about the task at hand. Don’t worry about making things perfect or thinking about what is ‘possible.’ Those details can be figured out later, but for now, it’s time to get every imperfect idea out for consideration.

9. Strong ideas, weakly held.

While it is good to be passionate about your ideas, it’s also important to be very open when you go out and get feedback on your prototype. If people don’t get it immediately, don’t try to explain it to them (as if it’s a perfect idea and they don’t get it because they’re stupid.) “That’s the complete opposite way of getting user feedback for a prototype,” says Shuya. It’s more important to know what people don’t like about your idea than what they do like about it. After all the feedback comes in, you can make sense of it by clustering groups of responses together and trying to understand themes. This will give you plenty of ideas for how you can improve the next version of your prototype.

10. Remember the art of storytelling.

When it comes time to pitch your idea and prototype, first take some time to figure out what your story is. What is the overarching narrative of your company and product/service? What is your mission? Why are you here in the world? Whose lives do you make easier? Telling a story about your venture will help people remember it better. While pitching will get you money, storytelling will make people develop a deeper emotional connection.


“You can prototype anything. This includes experiences, products, stories, business plans, and proof of concepts.”


Prototyping should be a fast-paced process that happens quickly…think of that new-age shopping cart developed by Ideo in one-week, with innovative ideas that were nearly a decade before their time. It’s action-oriented, it’s exhilarating, it’s rowdy, it’s inventive. There is no guarantee for a win either, so don’t be afraid to fail. “And when you do fail, just repeat, “It’s fine,” offers Shuya. “This is what innovative companies do all the time.” 

“This is my job,” says Shuya. “I go from zero to venture concept in one week, using technology-led design.” Using her professional prototyping tips, you can take your own inspiration and bizarre ideas, and rapidly prototype them into products and services that will change people’s lives.

David Graham: Pioneering Civic Innovation in San Diego, CA

“When I was a kid, my dad had a secret stash of magazines I wasn’t supposed to know about, hidden in the garage, buried in a box. But I knew where they were, so I’d sneak into the garage and leaf through the pages of those sexy Popular Science magazines because I wanted to know what the future would look like.”

CIO @DavidNGraham discusses how #cities are using civic #innovation to solve problems and improve life for citizens.

Flash forward and David Graham, formerly the Deputy Chief Operating Officer for Smart and Sustainable Communities in San Diego and currently the Chief Innovation Officer for the neighboring city of Carlsbad, would find himself in the position of creating the cities of the future. Here is a look at his work pioneering civic innovation in San Diego. 

The Four Horsemen of the Metro Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen of the Metro Apocalypse image

The concept of ‘smart cities’ means bringing technological advances to a city that will improve its operations and the quality of life for its citizens. “But I’m going to admit something to you right now,” he says. “Most of our cities are incredibly dumb.” Why? Because there are some major challenges holding them back.

“We have these great technological advances to create things like cleaner mobility,” says David, “but the fundamental building blocks of our cities are still flawed.” When thinking about the challenges that cities face, he likes to think of them as ‘the four horsemen of the metro apocalypse.’

1. Rapid Urbanization

We know that by 2030, a third of the world will live in cities of 500,000 or more. Rapid urbanization means cramming more people into less space.

2. Aging Infrastructure

Around the US, $4 trillion dollars of investment is necessary just to catch up with the underfunded infrastructure investments.

3. Climate Change

Climate change is something that is affecting the entire world. While there are still deniers, even corporate America has come on board. When banks and rating agencies for bonds look and ask about your city, they ask whether the city has sustainability officers, because climate change is a real and specific threat.

4. Cyber Security

The city of San Diego got a million attacks a month on their network, many from known malicious addresses and over a hundred thousand that are verified to be specific attacks on the city. “This is probably our number one threat that we’re facing in cities today, and the one that we are least ready to deal with,” David adds. 

Civic Innovation Is the Solution

Civic Innovation Is the Solution image

The solution to these problems is found in civic innovation, says David. Broadly defined, it’s the process of co-creating with outside parties in order to strategically use technology and data to solve city problems. To look at it more specifically, we can examine several components and key ideas within the philosophy and process of civic innovation.

Gathering Data

Gathering data is the key to figuring out what’s going on in your city. To do this, San Diego made use of the most mundane of urban objects—the streetlight. 

The streetlight is a fundamental piece of infrastructure that people walk by every day but rarely notice. It helps illuminate the night, thus providing safety and security for citizens. But the fact that streetlights are everywhere and are the perfect height to ‘look down’ on the streets and sidewalks below means that they can contribute so much more to the city than just light.

In San Diego, they decided to replace 14,000 streetlights with not only improved lighting but also a cellular network and sensors, thereby creating the largest municipal internet of things platform ever. Cameras, microphones, environmental sensors, all in one neat package. “The humble street light is now one of the most powerful sensing devices for civic learning that has ever existed,” says David. Some of the many uses are traffic congestion management, improving pedestrian safety, and parking optimization. 

Gathering data is important for civic innovation because it allows city officials to make data-empowered decisions. Data tells the city where it should invest money and can validate whether past money was invested properly.

Changing Bureaucracy from the Inside

Bureaucracy is not known for risk-taking. In fact, it is more known for regulations, restrictions, and lockdowns that prevent innovation. David mentions that to really change our cities, we have to shake that up, and that means “we have to change things from the inside.”

Getting help from outside innovation partners allows the city government to get ideas that they may not have (and possibly would never have) thought up on their own, for these outside partners are the true disrupters, not those within the bureaucracy itself. But truly embracing and implementing the ideas of disrupters means that the bureaucratic mindset has to change—departments and city officials have to be okay with taking risks and even accept the possibility that certain pilots will fail.

“If we never take a chance, if we never take a risk, then we’re never going to get where we need to go in our communities,” says David. This requires a mindset shift and also a different way of viewing and operating the city.

Co-Creating With Outside Partners

As mentioned above, civic innovation requires the city to partner with individuals and entities that are true disrupters. “They’re the ones that are willing to push the hardest and the furthest, the ones that are willing to try new things and put themselves out there,” says David. While civic innovation happens within the bureaucracy, it must happen in collaboration with startups, academics, and others who have different visions of what a future city may look like. 

For example, David reflects on the changes that have come in the “last mile” transit within San Diego. Light rail and buses take people downtown, but how do these people get to their end destination? Bike share programs were once popular—first docked bikes, then dockless bikes. Now many of these bikes are gone because e-bikes and scooters showed up and have become popular with citizens. The government did not think of these last-mile mobility solutions—the private sector did. However, by embracing these solutions from startups and creative companies, a crucial urban mobility challenge is solved, and the city also reaps benefits such as less pollution and congestion.


“If we never take a chance, if we never take a risk, then we’re never going to get where we need to go in our communities,” says David.


Another example of partnering with outside parties has to do with solar panels. David recalls that the system for getting a solar panel permit used to be clunky and time-consuming. To improve this, San Diego decided to take a big risk and eliminate the front-end process, essentially relying on the private sector and engineers themselves to self-certify. By taking the government out of the process and “letting industry do what industry does best” solar panel permits skyrocketed, and the city has been able to benefit from less fossil fuel usage and less pollution. 

Co-creation with innovative partners—coupled with the bureaucracy’s shift to becoming more accepting of risk—helps civic innovation flourish.

Engaging the Community

For civic innovation to happen, citizens, themselves must also be part of the process. Younger generations have higher expectations regarding technology and the efficient delivery of services, expectations which are pushing the city to come up with solutions and make the city a more convenient place to live. But successful implementation and adoption require buy-in from the community, and so San Diego has tried many strategies.

One is their open data policy, where all data sets are out there for people to view and play with. Another is transparency. The city seeks to be transparent about what they’re deploying, so citizens understand not only what is happening but also why. For example, before installing sensors on the streetlights, San Diego sought fun and engaging way to bring the community into the conversation. Instead of doing a boring survey, they held a block party. “Basically, we told people to come co-create with us,” says David.

Another example is an app the city created called Get It Done, and which David says “harnesses the awesome power of grumpy people.” The app allows residents to report problems they see in the city, including broken parking meters, potholes, abandoned vehicles and even poop on the sidewalk. How it works is that the request comes into the department, the person who reported the problem gets a message back acknowledging the request and giving a window of time for it to be fixed, then after the problem is fixed, the resident gets a message that it has been fixed, along with a photo proving it. David says that this app increased civic engagement and creates positive interactions with the city. It also saves money and helps residents feel that they have a more responsive and agile government.

Moonshot Ideas 

David says that although San Diego is focused on “doing practical, pragmatic civic innovation” the city also goes for moonshot ideas. “Cities are piloting some of the most amazing ideas that are moonshot,” he says. 

What does David mean by moonshot? As he explains it:

“What do the CAT scan, baby formula, dust buster, computer mouse, memory foam, headphones, selfie stick, and digital camera all have to do with each other? They would not have existed without the space program. All of those things, the fundamental technology for them, came from our desire to go into space and go to the moon. So when you talk about a moonshot, these are the types of things that can come when you set your sights high and then see what innovation can follow.”

San Diego’s moonshot ideas are tied to their climate action plan, which includes 100% renewable energy, 90% diversion of waste from landfills, and 50% of single-vehicle trips changed to walking, biking or alternative modes of transportation. 

“This is really our moonshot,” says David. “And it’s driving a lot of our work. Ambitious big goals that are going to change the way we end up living.”

“What we’re doing in cities is life-changing,” adds David, as he reflects on the civic innovation work being done in San Diego and in other cities around the globe. “LIFE because of quality of life and the way we live. We’re not accepting the same old dirty, polluted, annoying, terrible way of living in our cities. And CHANGING because innovation is powering the next version of what our communities are and can be.”

3 Ugly Truths about Innovation, from John Warner, Head of the Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry

“He creeped me out,” John Warner recalled, as he recounted his first encounter with Edwin Land, the founder of the Polaroid Corporation and one of the greatest inventors in U.S. history at the time. 

It was 1986 and Edwin had just phoned to request a meeting with John Warner, one of the world’s brightest medicinal chemists. “John, I’ve been following your career,” said Edwin over the phone. “I remember when you were at the National Academy. I remember you on the cover of Celebrity Magazine. Let’s have lunch.”

“I’m thinking, ‘This guy’s a stalker,’” said John. “I told six people where I was going and when I’d get back.”

“So I go and have lunch with this guy, and at lunch, he offers me a job to head exploratory research at Polaroid. I’m 24 years old. I say ‘Dude, I’m a medicinal chemist.’ I had two academic appointments already. He told me how much he wanted to pay me, and I said, ‘When do I start?’”

@JohnWarnerOrg, pioneer in #greenchemistry, discusses the ‘ugly truths’ about #innovation so you can become a pioneer in your industry too!

This is just one of the many big moves John has made in his fascinating career as an innovative chemist pioneering the concept of green chemistry across the globe—and the lesson for budding entrepreneurs is that you too cannot be afraid to pivot at the right time.

A musician turned chemist, John worked on cutting-edge pharmaceutical breakthroughs in the lab at Princeton, spent 10 years doing exploratory research for Polaroid, then 10 years as a tenured professor at the University of Massachusetts, and finally left that position to form the Warner Babcock Institute, an invention factory where he and his 25 colleagues put green chemistry principles to work to create new molecules, substances, and technologies that are better for human health and the environment. 

Together John and his team have made breakthroughs in areas ranging from pharmaceuticals and oncology to material science and consumer products. In the process, John has uncovered some interesting realities about the process of innovation. If you too are looking to make an impact on the world with your great ideas, here are three things to keep in mind.

3 Ugly Truths about Innovation

Check your preconceived notions about innovation at the door. With these lessons, John gives us insight into the ugly truths of innovation.

Lesson 1: Innovation Can Seem Obvious

Innovation Can Seem Obvious Image

“Lying in bed the night of his funeral, I’m asking myself, ‘I wonder if something I touched in the lab caused my son’s disease?’” John’s son, who was two years old, had just passed away from biliary atresia, a rare birth defect with an unknown cause. 

“At this point, I’ve probably synthesized over 2,500 new molecules, and I realized I have never been taught what makes a molecule toxic. I’ve never been taught what makes a molecule a hazard. For years of undergraduate, three and a half years of graduate school, I had never had a discussion, never had a seminar, never had a class, never had anything to talk about how you anticipate negative impacts of chemistry on human health and the environment.”

This eureka moment, plus a chance encounter with Paul Onassis, an old friend who now worked for the EPA, led Paul and John to write the revolutionary book Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Except John admits that the book wasn’t radical at all. “Anyone could have written this book; there’s nothing amazing about this book,” he says. “You’re waiting for something that should say ‘Wow, this is something!’ but it’s just so obvious. Sometimes it’s the obvious things that escape the attention.”

The ugly truth is that innovation can actually seem pretty basic and obvious. The things we take for granted and which escape our questioning eye are those that show the greatest potential for innovation.

Lesson 2: There’s Nothing New Out There

“Where do products come from?” muses John. “We take molecules. We turn them into materials. We call that basic research. We turn materials into components. We call that applied research. We turn components into devices. We call that development. When we do a lot of that, we call it manufacturing. To do this well, what does any organization have to focus on? Performance. Cost. Hey, wait a minute, that was my definition of green chemistry! There is nothing new here. There’s nothing new to the business. It’s just that now we’ve put the environment in the middle.”

Once again, John is humble to say that his cutting-edge ideas on green chemistry are obvious and ‘nothing new.’ But another ugly truth about innovation is that it does not require you to completely start from scratch. The building blocks for inventive ideas are all around you; it’s simply up to you to decide how to arrange them and from what angle they should be viewed.

Lesson 3: Innovation Happens in the Periphery

Innovation Happens in the Periphery image

The projects completed and underway at the Warner Babcock Institute involve everything from life-saving drugs to new materials for construction and paving to an alternative to hair dying that works with your natural ‘hair print.’ John and his team have been able to innovate in so many diverse ways because, as John puts it, “I don’t believe invention happens at the focal point. It happens in the periphery.”

Take, for example, the Alzheimer’s drug that the team has been working on for years in order to reduce the effective dose to minimal quantities. The knowledge gained from that project then led to a breakthrough in asphalt paving. They may seem like two different areas, but to John, they are quite similar – both are organic polymers wrapped around inorganic particles. “A molecule doesn’t know what industry it’s in. If we use the tools of chemistry, we can work on almost any problem, and that’s the magic.”


“It’s the highest intellectual challenge for the human race—to invent the things we need without impacting human health and the environment.” 


One of the ugly truths about innovation is that it rarely happens when you put your face down and focus exclusively on that innovation. Cutting edge invention happens when you are constantly learning from the world around you and applying that knowledge to seemingly unrelated areas.

“Today, in 2017, I would argue over 65 percent of technologies haven’t been invented yet,” says John. “This isn’t an epic battle between good and evil. This isn’t industry hoarding nasty technologies because they are so profitable. There is a fundamental disconnect in the ability to solve these problems.”

Over the years, society has become more vocal in demanding safer, sustainable technologies, which means that just about every industry is ripe for innovation to achieve this global goal. “It’s the highest intellectual challenge for the human race—to invent the things we need without impacting human health and the environment.” 

John has uncovered the ugly truths of innovation, which has lead him and his team of scientists to countless breakthroughs—and you can use those same understandings to make innovative developments happen in your industry too. Are you ignoring the obvious? Trying to reinvent the wheel? Reacting to problems instead of coming up with new solutions? There is a better way to construct the future and to illustrate that, John leaves us with this hypothetical scenario: “A big tanker truck is barreling through Cambridge, and it tips over. You can either go get body bags, or you could get a broom. Which would you rather?”